The mixing or hybridization between polar and brown bears appears to be easier than previously expected. Senckenberg scientists have sequenced the entire genomes of four bear species, making it now possible to analyze the evolutionary history of all bears at the genome level. It shows that gene flow, or gene exchange, between species by extensive hybridization, is possible between most bear species - not only polar and brown bear. The DNA samples of different bear species came from different European zoos, underlining their importance not only for conservation, but also for research. The study published today in "Nature Scientific Reports" also questions the existing species concept in general, because other genome studies too have, frequently found gene flow among species.
Nuclear submarines in the Arctic always have been a military issue, especially during the Cold War Ear and now with the increasing militarization of Arctic nations. However, there also is a peaceful and scientific utilization of this technique possible, according to Russian engineers. Surprisingly, the Design Bureau that came up with the idea of civilian nuclear submarines is the same that had designed all Russian military subs.
Polar cod fulfil a key role in the Arctic food web, as they are a major source of food for seals, whales and seabirds alike. But the polar cod themselves might soon be the hungry ones. Under the ice of the central Arctic, the juvenile fish are indirectly but heavily dependent on ice algae. As a result, retreating sea ice could have far-reaching impacts on the food web. Though researchers have long since suspected this relation existed, an international team of researchers led by the Alfred Wegener Institute (AWI), Helmholtz Centre for Polar and Marine Research, have now successfully confirmed it.
The Arctic Institute (TAI) is a renowned non-profit US organization that covers very complex and diverse Arctic policy and security. It also acts as an information platform on Arctic issues. To this end, it has set up a broad and large network of researchers and other experts on various Arctic topics. However, since the inauguration of the new US administration under President Trump, this network has experienced a surge of data disappearance on US Arctic policy and climate issues and it all points to the US administration as the culprit. Victoria Herrmann, president and managing director of the TAI, has now published an open letter in the British newspaper The Guardian.
The Arctic Council was established by Arctic nations as forum to discuss and decide Arctic issues which overlap national boundaries. The chairmanship rotates every two years and now, it is Finland’s turn to chair the council. At the next council meeting in Fairbanks, it will take over the Arctic council as well as the climate leadership from the currently presiding United States.
In 2012, news about the record low of Arctic sea ice minimum extent went around the world. Now, the Arctic sea ice maximum extent also has reached an all-time record low according to the data presented by the US National Snow and Ice Data Center in Boulder, Colorado. A mere 14.4 million square kilometers of the Arctic Ocean were covered by ice.
Being a young guillemot chick is quite hard. Growing up on a small ledge on high cliffs in the Arctic, surrounded by thousands of birds, being prey for gulls, foxes and even polar bears is quite stressful. But even worse, the little ones have to jump down into the water before their wings can support them for flight. This behavior has puzzled scientists for a long time. Now, an answer may have been found.
The Arctic is a relentless and harsh wilderness and travelling in this region requires a lot of skill, equipment and knowledge. But even the most skillful hunters and Arctic residents might come into a situation, in which the difference between life and death depends on sheer luck. Three hunters from Hall Beach, Nunavut, just experienced such a situation and were rescued only by chance by Canadian military forces.
Since the annexion of the Crimean peninsula in 2014, Norwegian-Russian relations became more and more freezing, unlike the winter climate in the high north. And while the ice in the Arctic melted faster and faster, high-level talks between politicians froze in almost completely. But now with spring coming to the Arctic, it seems as if the neighbors also start thawing as well. Both foreign ministers have agreed to meet in March at the Arctic conference in Arkhangelsk.
The energy supply to Longyearbyen, midway between continental Norway and the North Pole, is a hot topic in the climate debate. Longyearbyen is the largest settlement and the administrative centre of Svalbard, a Norwegian archipelago in the Arctic Ocean. Today, Longyearbyen obtains its electric power and district heating from its coal power plant, the only one in Norway. However, Scandinavia’s largest think tank has estimated that Svalbard’s future could be green and sustainable.